Risk management is part of all business operations, and its purpose is to identify, assess, manage and report significant risks. The Group’s risk management covers risks associated with individual projects, operational risks and risk of failing to comply with laws and regulations, such as the risks involved in financial reporting. Market risks include the effects of economic conditions, trends, customer development, supplier dependence, political decisions and competition. Risks also include technological risk and production disturbances as well as the capacity to attract and retain key individuals. Financial risks include existing financing, options for future financing and currency- and interest risks. Legal risks consist of legislation, regulations, insurance, public authorities and supervisory bodies, as well as disputes and claims for damages. Risks that are managed well can lead to opportunities and generate value, while risks that are not dealt with correctly can cause damages and unnecessary costs for the company. For this reason, the ability to identify risk factors and manage risks is an important part of the company’s operational activities.

FINANCIAL RISKS
Sensys Gatso is exposed to financial risks in its international business due to changes in exchange- and interest rates, as well as liquidity, financing and credit risks. The Group’s policy for managing financial risks has been defined by the Board and serves as a framework for risk management. 

CURRENCY RISK
Currency risk refers to the fluctuations in exchange rates having a negative impact on Group’s income statement, balance sheet and/or cash flow. Currency risk arises when future business transactions, or reported assets or liabilities, are expressed in a currency which is not the Group’s functional currency.

Transaction exposure
In the Group’s international operations, some customers pay in their own currency which means that the Group is exposed to transactional currency risks. This kind of currency risk also arises in conjunction with the import of raw material and components in a currency that is not the Group’s functional currency.
Incoming flows or foreign currencies should be used for payment in the same currency. 

Translation exposure
Currency risk also arises in conjunction with the translation of foreign net assets and earnings, so-called translation exposure. This currency risk is not hedged and refers, primarily, to the translation of foreign subsidiaries’ income statement and balance sheets. Earnings from foreign subsidiaries are translated into Swedish krona based on the average exchange rate for each month. Net assets are translated into Swedish Krona based on the exchange rate per last date of the month.
The Group’s risk exposure in foreign currencies at the end of 2016, expressed in thousands of Swedish kronor (TSEK) consisted of the following:

  EUR USD SEK AUD
Accounts receivable 20,512 7,279 32,866 2,163
Related party loans 373 0 0 0
  20,885 7,297 32,866 2,163
         
Bank loans 0 -434 -18,750 0
Related party loans -79,839 0 0 0
Accounts payable -4,423 -1,616 -12,915 -2,369
  -84,262 -2,050 -31,665 -2,369

As indicated by the exposure table above, the Group is primarily exposed to changes in the EUR/SEK exchange rate.

 

Impact on 
profit after tax

Impact on other
components in equity

Tkr 2016 2015 2016 2015
EUR/SEK exchange rates + 10%  -5,376 -4,154 -577 1,421
USD/SEK exchange rates + 10%  365 -9,648 -6,992 8,838
AUD/SEK exchange rates + 5 %   230 233 390

558

The largest exposure to changes is in the EUR/SEK exchange rate, but the USD/SEK exchange rate is also sensitive to changes, which can affect equity, since the Company has goodwill and other intangible assets in local currencies.
Earnings are more sensitive to changes in the EUR exchange rate in 2016 compared with 2015 being the first full year since the acquisition. The Company has no forward exchange contracts that can affect equity. The Group’s exposure to other exchange rate fluctuations is not material.

INTEREST RISKS
Sensys holds no interest-bearing assets and, accordingly, the Group’s income and cash flow from operating activities are, in all material aspects, independent of changes in market interest rates. The Group’s interest-rate risk arises in conjunction with long-term borrowing. The aim is to limit the interest risk in the Group’s interest-bearing liabilities. At the closing date, the Group had MSEK 99.2 (214.7) in interest-bearing liabilities and cash and cash equivalents were MSEK 31.6 (76.2).
Borrowing on the basis of floating interest rates exposes the Group to interest–rate risks as regards to cash flow. Borrowing on the basis of fixed interest rates implies an interest-rate risk for the Group in terms of fair value. During 2016, the Group’s borrowings largely consisted of loans with three months fixed interest rates which is the same conditions as of 2015.  
If interest rates on borrowing in Swedish krona as of 31 December 2016 had been 10 points higher/lower, but all other variables had been constant, then gains before tax for the financial year would have been MSEK 1.8 (1.8) higher/lower, primarily as an effect of higher/lower interest expenses for borrowings with floating interest rates.
The Group holds no listed financial instruments.


LIQUIDITY AND FINANCIAL RISKS
Financing risk also refers to risks associated with existing and future financing, refinancing of overdue loans, or difficulties in raising external loans. Liquidity risk refers to the risk of being unable to fulfil payment commitments when they fall due as a consequence of insufficient liquidity. Both of these forms of risk are managed by the company preparing regular cash flow forecasts. The Board closely monitors rolling forecasts for the company’s and the Group’s liquidity reserve to ensure that the company has sufficient cash funds to meet the requirements of operating activities. 
During 2016 payments of MSEK 108.9 have been made to repay loans to the banks to the amount of MSEK 34.0, repay loans to shareholders to the amount of MSEK 32.2 and replenish the credit facilities to the amount of MSEK 42.7. 
At the year-end the total amount of credit facilities not taken up amounts to MSEK 54.0, resulting in available cash to the amount of MSEK 85.5.
For the liabilities the company has conventional covenants towards the banks, such as dept-to equity, levels of EBITDA and certain restriction for new investments. The table below presents an analysis of the Group’s financial liabilities to be settled net, specified according to the contractual time to maturity, as of the closing date. The interest amounts stated in the table are the contractual, undiscounted cash flows. Amounts falling due within 12 months correspond with the carrying amounts, as the effect of discounting is negligible.  

As of 31 December 2016 Less than
1 year 
Between
1 and 2 year
Between
2 and 5 years
More than
5 year
Bank loans 19,313 434 0 0
Trade payables and other liabilities 21,077 0 0 0
Loan to related parties  0 27,427 27,427 31,457
Total  40,390 27,861 27,427 31,457

 

As of 31 December 2015 Less than
1 year 
Between
1 and 2 year
Between
2 and 5 years
More than
5 year
Bank loans 25,750 28,727 0 0
Trade payables and other liabilities 56,401 0 0 0
Loan to shareholders 41,135 0 42,738 40,190
Total 123,286 28,727 42,738 40,190

 

CREDIT RISK
Credit risks are defined as the risk of loss if the opposite parties with whom the Group has invested cash and cash equivalents, fail to fulfil their obligations. Credit risks are to a large extent avoided through effective creditworthiness analyses/monitoring of existing and potential customers, and in certain cases by obtaining payments in advance or payment against a letter of credit. The Groups’ assets are recognised in the balance sheet after deduction for provisions for expected credit losses. The credit risk is limited to the carrying amount of each financial asset
A provision of MSEK 24.0 (22.0) was made for receivables that are not expected to be paid.

CAPITAL RISK
The Group’s objective with regard to the capital structure is to secure the Group’s ability to continue operating, so that it can continue to generate returns for shareholders and benefits for other stakeholders, and to maintain an optimal capital structure to keep the cost of capital down.
To maintain or adjust the capital structure, the Group may change the dividend paid to shareholders, repay capital to shareholders, issue new shares or sell assets to reduce debt. The debt/equity ratio at 31 December 2016 was 63 per cent (78).

OPERATIONAL RISKS 
For Sensys Gatso, a major part of operational risk lies in the management of each individual project. Sensys Gatso works actively to integrate risk management in each customer project, and has developed an in-house tool, Risk Assessment Analysis, for this purpose. The tool enables the company to identify, manage and where necessary, accept and limit the risks involved in each project. The project manager is responsible for implementing Risk Assessment Analysis and subsequently following up and reporting on important matters. In addition to this, for larger projects, a member of the management team will be appointed to act as sponsor for the project and the point of contact for regular reports from the project manager.
Each linear manager is also responsible for driving and developing his/her respective area of responsibility, which includes identifying opportunities and threats as well as continuously following up activities.
Finally, the management team’s meetings function as a forum for discussions upon which operational decisions are based, thereby consolidating risk management in its entirety.

PRICE RISK
Price risk in the Group’s operations primarily arise in conjunction with the purchase of material used in manufacturing. 

INSURANCE
The Group has adequate insurance policies covering property, product liability, interruptions and transport, as well as an insurance policy covering the Board of Directors and CEO.

IT SECURITY
As computer-aided technology has assumed an increasingly greater scope within the companies, security requirements have also increased. The functional security of the databases and e-mail servers is checked via daily backups. The internet connection is fixed and completely isolated from other networks via hardware firewalls. Access via public networks is secured via security devices. User access to the system is regulated via Group authorisations and entitlements based on actual assignments and roles within the company.